TOPIC: Safe Water

Surface water should be Treated by boiling it to rid it of germs and parasites and some Pollutants. Waterborne Diseases can be deadly, and Emergencies can occur suddenly. A Filter such as Katadyn, AquaPure, PUR Plus, Brittas, Amway, or PentaPure, or a Pre-Filter or Lead Trap can help, along with a Systematic approach to the problem. Reportedly, a Home-Made filter can be constructed. Ultraviolet as in Sunlight, Ozone, Oxygen, and Electricity also kills germs. An battery operated UV light such as SteriPEN can be constructed. Chlorine has its pros and Cons, but Standing removes it. Wine Treated water from Wooden Barrels kills bacteria. Containers for Storing Water, perhaps in Bulk, can leach. Hard Plastic and metal are best, though Soft Plastic reportedly works, but Copper can cause problems. Reverse Osmosis purifies water. Drinking Salt Water such as seawater can be extremely dangerous, as are other Bad Options, but Urine is potable. A Water Cone uses the heat from the Sun to distill water. Water polluted with Volcanic Ash or Forest Fire ash or DOE Dump Sites can be dangerous, so Distilling drinking water is advised. Distillation also removes Arsenic and Lead from ground water. A Distillation Process is a Simple Process involving Making Steam. Methods include an Open Teapot and Close Teapot and Coil Exchange and Full Exchange to reduce HydroCarbon. Another method is a Pressure Cooker with Parts List and Bucket Collection, with Steam Cautions. Non-steam methods like an Umbrella Tent or Cotton Cloth are also effective. Best method is the Stacked Pot with Two Pots and a Pie Pan with optional Small Parts and Simple Assembly. This method can be purchased from Sustainable Village, already assembled. Water Quality can also be tested. All Myths debunked, distillation can have a Vacuum Assist and use multiple Heat Sources. A Solar Distiller uses heat from sunlight. One can allow low Boiling Point pollutants such as Hydrocarbons to escape. Commercial Distillers are available, including Separators. Even the Ancients had distillers, and Seawater can be distilled using only the heat of the day. Energy efficient methods for purifying Brackish Water are available, with detailed instruction on a PDF File. A misc.survivalism ftp covers the issues but presumes a short term crisis.